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Maximilian Salzmann

Salzmann paintingIf you want to feel totally inadequate in your gonioscopic technique, examine the paintings published by Maximilian Salzmann in 1914 and 1915.

Salzmann was the first person to use a contact lens to look at the iridocorneal angle. Besides being a brilliant ophthalmologist, Saltzmann was an accomplished artist. He painted these beautiful images of the iridocorneal angle. Salzmann also a made equally beautiful paintings of the fundus and of other artistic subjects.

There is a very nice review about Maximilian Salzmann by Sugar and Foster (Survey of Ophthalmology 26:28-30, 1981). Interestingly, in their review, they felt that these images had lost largely been lost to public viewing. Through the diligent efforts of my departmental librarians Patricia Duffel and Rita Gallo, we were to find the original papers in which these paintings were published and through the courtesy of S. Karger AG, Basel we are able to share them with you. My colleague, Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., was nice enough to translate the figure legends from the original German.

While Salzmann had invented the use of a contact lens (he used the Fick lens – a clunky scleral contact lens made for irregular astigmatism) he found this lens very difficult to use. In the wonderful “Historical Notes on Gonioscopy” (Survey of Ophthalmology 20:137-149, 1975) Dellaporta points out that, of all of the 35 publishing paintings reproduced here, only four were made with a contact lens (Kontakglass). These were figure 7 in 1914 in figure 7, 18 and 27 in 1915. The remainder of these extraordinary paintings were made using a direct ophthalmoloscope with indentation. It is humbling to see the tremendous detail that Saltzmann was able to appreciate using this very crude technique.

Maximilian Salzmann

  • Fig. 6 (1915) - Right eye, nasal quadrant, male, 29 yellow-grey iris, Visible ciliary margin of the iris.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 7 (1915) - Left eye, nasal quadrant, male, 85 y/o, senile cataract, grey iris (goniolens). Regular organization of iris extensions.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 8 (1915) - Left eye, nasal quadrant, female, 11 y/o, brown iris. Blood-filled canal of Schlemm.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 9 (1915) - Left eye, nasal quadrant; male, 51 y/o, large cornea, chamber very deep, senile cataract, vascular loop at the ciliary margin of the iris.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 10 (1915) - Right eye, nasal quadrant, female, 7 y/o, brown iris, cornea very large (Case V), Peculiar iris extensions.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 11 (1915) - Left eye, nasal quadrant, female, 14 y/o, brown iris (case I),. Peculiar formation of the ciliary margin of the iris.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 12 (1915) - Left eye, temporal quadrant, female, 17 y/o, “complicated cataract (case IX) Incomplete peripheral synechiae and hemosiderin accumulation in the open portion of the trabecular meshwork.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 13 (1915) - Right eye, nasal quadrant, male, 27 y/o siderosis (Case XI). Siderosis of the angle.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 14 (1915) - Left eye, temporal quadrant, male, 37 y/o, small rupture of the corneo-scleral border (case XIV). Displacement of the iris due to vitreous coming forward and radial tear. Visible “corona ciliaris” (pars plicata).  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 15 (1915) - Right eye, nasal and nasal-superior portion, male, 70 y/o, aphakia after cataract extraction (case VIII). Circumscribed peripheral synechia and remains of blood.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 16 (1915) - Left eye, nasal quadrant, male, 26 y/o. iritis (case XVII). Discoloration of the aqueous humor.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 17 (1915) - Same eye, temporal quadrant, discoloration of the aqueous and circumscribed peripheral synechia.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 18 (1915) - Right eye, inferior and temporal-temporal portion, male, 37 y/o, traumatic cataract, (case VII) (goniolens).  Circumscribed and incomplete peripheral synechiae, pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 19 (1915) - Left eye, temporal quadrant, female, 38 y/o with syphlitic iritis, in the process of resolution (Case XVIII). Exudates in the angle.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 20 (1915) - Right eye, nasal quadrant, female, 23 y/o with keratoconus, (case XXXVIII).  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 21 (1915) - Right eye, nasal quadrant, male, 72, y/ with a corneal scar with adherent synechiae (case XXI). Synechiae in the area of the scar and peripheral synechiae outside of the area of the scar.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 22 (1915) - Right eye, superior quadrant, male, 57 y/o with surgical iris coloboma (case XV), Iris root, anterior synechia, pars plicata.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 23 (1915) - Right eye, superior quadrant, male, 24 y/o, occluded pupil with surgical coloboma of the iris (case XVI).  No iris root, pigment strands toward operative scar.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 24 (1915) - Left eye, temporal-inferior quadrant; male, 19 y/o after ocular trauma (case XII).  Synechial extension, widened angle [presumably angle recession], remains of an ecchymosis.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 25 (1915) - Left eye, nasal quadrant, male, 47 y/o with megalocornea and traumatic lens subluxation (case XXXIV). Peculiar coloration and patterns on the anterior surface of the ciliary body.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 26 (1915) - Left eye, nasal quadrant, male, 12 y/o with buphthalmos (case XXXV). Peculiar consistency of the anterior surface of the ciliary body.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 27 (1915) - Left eye, nasal quadrant female, 50 y/o with inflammatory glaucoma (goniolens). Complete peripheral synechiae.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 28 (1915) - Right eye, inferior quadrant, female, 51 y/o with retinal inflammation and inflammatory glaucoma (case XXXII). Peripheral synechia, remains of blood in the iridocorneal sulcus.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 29 (1915) - Left eye, inferior quadrant, female, 51 y/o with retinal inflammation without elevated pressure (case XXXII). Incomplete peripheral synechiae, pigmentation (in the anterior portion of the trabecular meshwork?)(Brackets by Salzmann).  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 30 (1915) - Left eye, nasal quadrant, male, 6 y/o with buphthalmos (case XXXVI). The abnormalities do not permit a clear interpretation.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Fig. 31 (1915) - Same temporal quadrant. Complete peripheral synechiae.  From: Salzmann, M. Die Ophthalmoskopie der Kammerbucht. Ztschr. F. Augenh., 34:26, 1915.  Reprinted with generous permission of S. Karger AG, Basel.  Translated by Markus H. Kuehn, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
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